unexpected inconsistency; run fsck manually

今天一台服务器突然登录不上,无乃求助机房,重启后提示如图:

中间曾被建议重装系统,因为有很多环境要配置,而且盘上有很多重要历史数据,又重试了一把,幸亏成功。

后来查了一下fsck命令,使用说明如下:

fsck(file system check)用来检查和维护不一致的文件系统。若系统掉电或磁盘发生问题,可利用fsck命令对文件系统进行检查
Linux技巧:使用Fsck命令修复损坏的分区
输入Root密码登录后采用:fsck –t ext3 -r /usr/local 修复
fsck的命令的几个使用方法
指令:fsck
使用权限 : 超级使用者 root
使用方式 : fsck [-sACVRP] [-t fstype] [–] [fsck-options] filesys […]
说明 : 检查与修复 Linux 档案系统,可以同时检查一个或多个 Linux 档案系统
参数 :
filesys : device 名称(eg./dev/sda1),mount 点 (eg. / 或 /usr)
-t : 给定档案系统的型式,若在 /etc/fstab 中已有定义或 kernel 本身已支援的则不需加上此参数
-s : 依序一个一个地执行 fsck 的指令来检查
-A : 对/etc/fstab 中所有列出来的 partition 做检查
-C : 显示完整的检查进度
-d : 列印 e2fsck 的 debug 结果
-p : 同时有 -A 条件时,同时有多个 fsck 的检查一起执行
-R : 同时有 -A 条件时,省略 / 不检查
-V : 详细显示模式
-a : 如果检查有错则自动修复
-r : 如果检查有错则由使用者回答是否修复
-y : 选项指定检测每个文件是自动输入yes,在不确定那些是不正常的时候,可以执行 # fsck -y 全部检查修复。[1]
例子 :
检查 msdos 档案系统的 /dev/hda5 是否正常,如果有异常便自动修复 :fsck -t msdos -a /dev/hda5
注意 :
此指令可与 /etc/fstab 相互参考操作来加以了解。
简介与应用
The system utility fsck (for "file system check" or "file system consistency check") is a tool for checking the consistency of a file system in the Unix system and clones thereof.
Generally, fsck is run automatically at boot time when the system detects that a file system is in an inconsistent state, indicating a non-graceful shutdown, such as a crash or power loss. Typically, fsck utilities provide options for either interactively repairing damaged file systems (the user must decide how to fix specific problems), automatically deciding how to fix specific problems (so the user doesn't have to answer any questions), or reviewing the problems that need to be resolved on a file system without actually fixing them.
Fsck can also be run manually by the system administrator if there is believed to be a problem with the file system. However, running fsck on a mounted file system can potentially cause severe data corruption/loss.
A journaling file system is designed such that tools such as fsck do not need to be run as often. The UFS2 Filesystem in FreeBSD has background fsck, so it is usually not necessary to wait for fsck to finish before accessing the disk.
The Microsoft equivalent programs are scandisk and chkdsk. In DOS, chkdsk was used to check file system integrity, but later versions also featured a tool called scandisk for checking disk surface for bad sectors. Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows Me featured a version of scandisk which ran natively in the Windows environment. The Windows NT series, including NT 4, Windows 2000, and Windows XP all use a modern, updated version of chkdsk which performs both disk surface and file system scanning, though its disk-surface check is less thorough than scandisk's.
Use as profanity
Before the rise of journaling file systems, it was not uncommon for an improperly shut-down Unix system's file system to develop a corrupted superblock. This possibly serious problem could only be resolved by running fsck, which could take anywhere from a few seconds to hours, depending on the volume's size. Because of the severity of fsck not being able to resolve this error, the terms "fsck" and "fscked" have come into use among Unix system administrators as a minced oath. When one is told "Go fsck yourself!" the meaning implied is to "go away, analyze yourself, and fix your problems", mirroring fsck's primary function.
It is unclear whether this usage was cause or effect, as it has been anecdotally reported that Dennis Ritchie has claimed "The second letter was originally different." [1]
Pronunciation
Like many computer jargon terms without vowels, fsck is essentially unpronounceable in most languages and so people are forced to improvise when speaking it aloud. It can be pronounced "F-S-C-K," "F-S-check," "fisk," "fizik," "fuss-uck," "fizz-uck," "fozz-uck," "F-sick," "F-suck" (associated with how long it takes to run [2]), "F-sek," or "fusk." Some prefer to just pronounce it as "fuck".
References
^ Google USENET archive of a 1998 post to alt.sysadmin.recovery
^ Example Google Groups post
External links
man fsck
Checking and Repairing File system with fsck
Jargon File entry: fscking
The many faces of fsck

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